The combined (federal, state, local) top corporate income tax rate in the United States is 39.2% (average for all states). It's the highest in the world. The top rate in Japan is 38%. The top rate in Switzerland is 22%. The top rate in Brazil is 25%. The top rate in Mexico is 30%. The top rate in Canada is 34% (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/30/us-corporate-tax-rate_n_1392310.html).
|Section 3: Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand|
|Microeconomics - Unit 3|
Some products are elastic (buyers are price sensitive), and some products are inelastic (buyers are not price sensitive). What makes people more sensitive to one product's price change compared to another product's price change? Some people will choose to not buy a car if its price increases by 10%, but are unaffected by an increase of 10% in the price of a bag of salt.
The three determinants of price elasticity of demand are
2. The importance of the product's cost in one's budget.
3. The period of time under consideration.
Elasticity and the Effect of a Tax Change on the Price of the Product
If a government increases the sales tax on a product by 50 cents, does that mean that the equilibrium price of the product will increase by 50 cents? The answer is no. Typically, the equilibrium price will increase less than 50 cents. How much it will increase depends on the product's elasticity. Let's take a look at an example.
Let's assume that a state government increases the tax on gasoline by 50 cents. This means that the cost of supplying the gasoline increases by 50 cents. In the graph below, the supply curve shifts leftward. Note that the vertical difference between supply curve S1 and supply curve S2 is 50 cents (the increase in the cost of supplying the gasoline). The equilibrium price, however, did not increase by 50 cents, because the demand curve is sloped at an angle. The burden of any tax is typically shared between consumers and suppliers. In the graph below, the tax is shared equally as the price increases by 25 cents.
In the graph below, the demand curve is steeper than the demand curve in the graph above. This means that the product is less elastic. Consequently, most of the burden of the tax is born by the consumers. In general, for less-elastic products (steeper demand curves), the burden of the tax is mostly on the consumers. For more-elastic products (flatter demand curves), the burden of the tax is mostly on the suppliers.
|Last Updated on Monday, 20 January 2014 10:44|